200 years ago “block chain”, and the Indian lament

The collapse of land finance…

The end of land finance is land privatization…

Today, let’s talk about a technical problem:

Procedurally, how does the U.S. government privatize federal lands?

The answer: they adopted the “block chain technology” of the era.

At that time, the “block chain technology” was the PLSS system developed by the United States Federal Land General Office.

The full name of PLSS is The Public Land Survey System, which originated from the land survey in New England and was later improved by the United States Federal Land General Office. The main purpose of PLSS is to divide the land into blocks and classify the property rights of this block. To a specific immigrant

Here, I use a picture to illustrate the “technical principles” of PLSS.

The map on the upper right represents a large territory (the future state) in the westward movement. The area is divided into a number of cells. The cells are basically defined by latitude and longitude, and each cell is called a Township (this is why the boundaries of most states, counties, and towns in the western United States are horizontal, horizontal, and vertical). We take the representative township T2SR3W as an example of the next level division.

The Township, further divided into 6 x 6 = 36 blocks, called “sections,” each approximately 1 mile wide (” 1 minute “in latitude and longitude), each separately labeled 1-36. The Federal government stipulated that in each of the 6 Section sales, A Section of the land proceeds had to be spent on education, thus ensuring that the children of immigrants in the town would be civilized (private property, literate, European civilization) – something akin to the well field system of the feudal Western Zhou Dynasty.

Note that this Section is large, almost 640 acres, which translates to about 3,885 acres in China, which is why the federal government mandated a minimum 640 acre unit of land purchase in the first place. Later, however, land ordinances were changed, and the minimum size was reduced to 160 acres in 1804 and 40 acres in 1832.

Let’s take Section14 as an example of the next level of partitioning.

The bottom left figure shows Section14 being further divided. The northwest, northeast and southeast three pieces of land can be divided into corresponding plots and sold. In the lower left corner, there is a small piece of land near the lake that is not complete. OK, these two parts need not be sold and belong to the reserve of the federal government.

Once the land is divided, the next question is how to sell it at the right price.

In my article “The End of land Finance is privatization,” I said:

The Puritans who came to America from England were largely influenced by the ideas of John Locke and William Petty. They believed that:

“Land is the mother of wealth; labor is the father of wealth”.

The Western territory of the United States was huge, but there were not enough settlers. If the land was transferred to private individuals for free, there would be people who would hoard the land and not develop it to form real wealth. On the contrary, if the land can be sold to the private at a suitable price, the people spend the money, it is equivalent to the investment in it, will be seriously developed, can form real wealth.

It was under the influence of these ideas that in order to sell land to as many immigrants as possible who were willing to develop the land, before Lincoln’s Homestead Act in 1862, the US Congress enacted 10 land privatization bills.

From the moment an immigrant buys a piece of land, the federal deed is recorded, and every subsequent change of ownership is also recorded in the federal deed record — if you don’t understand this, think about the government record of buying and selling a house in China.

The white immigrants who participated in the westward movement were basically all advocates of private ownership. They brought with them from Europe a complete system of land division, measurement, registration and ownership, and gradually formed a complete “property chain”.

Now, if you go to the Midwest, a lot of private land ownership, you can go to the local government and look up the transaction records for over 100 years…

Think about it, what is the latest block chain technology?

The significance of block chain technology lies in the establishment of a set of Internet value confirmation system based on distributed storage. The content recorded in those blocks is the transfer of private property rights on the Internet. In some fields, it replaces the credit intermediaries we currently rely on such as banks, trust institutions and clearing houses.

The PLSS system, combined with the federal government’s credit intermediary, was the block chain technology of its day.

That said, it may not be very clear to many people, but I will give you a list of the differences in thinking between Native Americans and white immigrants.

What I didn’t mention in the previous article is that before the westward movement of the United States began, the land on the North American continent was not really “unwonted”. It was the land where the Native Americans had been nomadic for generations. At that time, the Indians lived as nomads, living by water and grass, and living in common property and land.

The Indians at first did not care about the white settlers, and even welcomed them as individuals, because the land was shared and it did not matter who lived there.

But soon the Indians realized that something was wrong. For once the white people occupied a piece of land; they did not allow the Indians to enter it. It became their “private land,” and the Indians became “invaders.”

What Indians do not know is that in the civilization of Eurasia, private land and property are basic concepts, and only when any resources are private can they find the most effective use. However, relying on the “privatization” thinking and the decentralized gold and silver currency exchange system, the civilization of Eurasia has made rapid progress.

Why did the Europeans colonize America and not the Indians colonize Europe? This has shown that, at least at that time, the European system of private property was more adaptable to The Times than the American system of public property and common land.

Before independence, Indians in the 13 eastern states had been slaughtered or driven to the Midwest because of the need for land. At that time, Indians and their lands were treated as foreigners. But as American territory began to expand westward, the relationship between Native Americans and the land again became an issue.

In response to the Indian problem, the federal government stipulated in the “Westward Movement” Act that only the federal government could make deals with the Indians so that they would not be cheated by “bad people” — in other words, the Indians were excluded from land deals.

Clearly, the Indians would not approve of the policy of privatizing their land, nor would they consider themselves residents of the United States under the Commonwealth, nor would they approve of the federal government’s system of private property rights formed by the PLSS+ land deed chain. In fact, until 2007, the Lakota Sioux Tribe, a subgroup of American Indians, was going to secede from the United States…

The Indians had a tribe, not a nation, and a vague view of private property rights. They can’t understand that our ancestors have been allowed to hunt, gather and graze on this land for generations, but when you come and draw a circle and plant something, it becomes your land and we are no longer allowed to use it? This is outrageous!

So there were quite a few Indians who took up arms against the white settlers who were occupying their land.

Under the Eurasian system of protecting private property rights, after the federal government grants a migrant a piece of “terra nullius”, it uses the brute force apparatus of the state to confirm that the land is already his. If the Indians dared to return to the land, it would be trespassing, and the federal army and police would protect “private property rights.” If the Indians refused to quit, they would even be shot and driven away…


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